Part of the gastrointestinal tract between the small and large intestines. It is a small, coiled organ in dogs.
The build-up of calcium salts in soft tissue, causing it to harden.
A concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ of the body. Bladder or kidney stones are an example of calculus.
A subtype of cancer that arises from epithelial cells. Epithelial cells form the lining of our internal organs, cavities, glands, and skin.
Pertaining to the heart.
Literally means "heart muscle disease".
A term relating to both the heart and lungs.
White opacities in the lens of the eye. Cataracts are one of the most common problems affecting the eyes of the dog. There are many different forms and causes of cataract formation. Severe cataracts can cause blindness and may be an indicator of underlying diseases like diabetes.
A term meaning toward the tail or the posterior end of the body.
A region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control and co-ordination.
A chronic disease of the liver whereby healthy tissue is replaced by scar tissue.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.
The process by which the body forms a blood clot (thrombus) that prevents further blood loss from damaged tissues, blood vessels or organs.
Colostrum is an antibody-rich milk which is secreted by all female animals during the first few days of a newborn’s life.
A state of unconsciousness from which an animal cannot be awakened.
Complete Blood Count
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as full blood count (FBC) or blood panel, is a test that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. It is used to evaluate overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anaemia and infection.
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
A condition in which bowel movements occur less often than usual or consist of hard, dry stools that are painful or difficult to pass.
The eating of faeces. Is considered normal behaviour in some species, such as rabbits. However, in other species coprophagy can be related to certain diseases or behavioural problems.
The propagation of microorganisms in a growth media. Used to diagnose and guide treatment for infectious diseases.
A condition where abnormalities in either the pituitary gland or adrenal glands cause the release of too much natural cortisone (corticosteroid).
Relating to, or affecting the skin.
A bluish colour of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood.
A class of disease in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth and invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues. Cancers sometimes spread to other locations in the body. This term is normally used to describe malignant tumours.
This fungus or yeast can normally be found in areas of the body such as the mouth, the genital and intestinal tracts. It can cause disease in animals.
Pertaining to dogs.
Refers to the circulatory system comprising the heart and blood vessels which carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes.
The animal equivalent of our wrist.
Removal of the testicles.
A region of the brain that controls emotional, behavioural and learning functions.
Treatment of cancer with drugs. The drugs used are slightly more toxic to cancer cells than healthy cells, so the cancer is treated without causing permanent damage.
A disease of slow onset and of long duration. (e.g. chronic osteoarthritis)
A defect in the body's mechanism for making blood clots.
Coccidia are microscopic, single celled organisms that infect animal cells. They can cause watery or bloody diarrhoea in pets.
Inflammation of the large intestine (colon).
The section of the large intestine extending from the caecum to the rectum.
Computerized Tomography Scan (CT Scan)
Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, combines a series of X-ray views taken from many different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues inside your pet’s body.
A condition that is present at birth.
The tissue lining the inner surface of the eyelids and covering the white of the eyes (sclera).
Vaccines which are strongly recommended, and sometimes even required. For example, parvovirus vaccine in dogs or panleucopenia in cats.
The clear front part of the eye.
Any of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland or their synthetic equivalents.
Pertaining to the head or in the direction of the head.
A pathologic space in bone or soft tissue containing fluid or semi-solid material.
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Refers to a branch of pathology that deals with making diagnoses of diseases based on the examination of cells.